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運輸結構調整應將交通、環保與消費保障三目標聚合

          (來源:經濟參考報)

         剛剛成立的中央財經委員會第一次會議明確提出打贏藍天保衛戰,調整四個結構,做到四增四減。其中一個重要內容就是調整運輸結構,減少公路運輸量,增加鐵路運輸量。

  多數人認為,運輸結構調整只有綜合運輸暢通和防治污染兩個目標,卻容易忽略第三個目標,即消費升級的保障。十九大明確提出,我國社會主要矛盾已經轉化為人民日益增長的美好生活需要和不平衡不充分的發展之間的矛盾。

  生態環境部繼去年環渤海港口禁止汽運煤進港后,又提出,到今年9月底前,山東和長三角地區沿海港口煤炭集疏港全部采用鐵路運輸;20199月底前,京津冀及周邊、長三角地區沿海港口的礦石、煤炭和焦炭等大宗貨物全部改由鐵路運輸方式。由此可見,大宗運輸公轉鐵結構性改變已經勢不可擋。

  以公轉鐵為主要手段的運輸結構調整一定應基于宜鐵則鐵,宜公則公的原則進行,但對的考量則需要綜合考慮政府環保政策和市場運行規律,同時更要有利于推進運輸市場競爭環境公平。

  從理論上講,鐵路運價在超過600公里運距時應該低于公路運價,但是在實際運營中,鐵路運價往往需要在1000公里以上才具有價格優勢。因為一方面鐵路運輸往往難以實現門到門全程解決方案,需要借助公路貨運的接取送達,公鐵轉接短駁的成本較高而效率降低;另一方面,則是因為公路貨運行業度極低而容易導致用超限超載及現金交易或偷漏稅方式等黑經濟手段實現低價惡性競爭。

  不公平的市場競爭環境使得全社會物流成本居高不下,整體物流效率也難以提升。此次公轉鐵政策在某種程度上對鐵路白經濟進行了一定的補償,而國家也會強力推進大型企業及公共物流園區鐵路專業線的建設,進一步提升鐵路在大宗貨物門到門服務和整體運價的市場競爭力。

  運輸結構調整的政策要求,以及與大型企業在煤炭等大宗運輸的長協合同,會促進鐵路總公司大規模進行鐵路專用線建設和既有貨場改造,并大量新購機車和相應車輛,以最快速度提升大宗貨運運力;但面對白、冷、快、特等高附加值產品在長途物流及城市倉配市場高速增長的需求時,鐵路貨運部門必然面臨特別大的挑戰

   重要的是,如何在運輸結構調整中落地北京市的外集內配綠色鐵路物流,是一個相當艱巨的任務。畢竟在北京市現有運輸結構中,鐵路貨運比例不足3%,而目前北京鐵路局集團公司短期統籌自身資源能力,也只能將鐵路運力提高一倍,即不足6%,從北京市公轉鐵的目標來看,無異于杯水車薪。如果再考慮北京市人口消費升級需要更多城市配送的話,鐵路貨運比例將更低。因此,必須跳出現有運營模式、管理模式甚至思維模式,才有可能實現鐵路貨運比例階躍式上升的目標。

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